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Shoulder, hip, and knee are the most common areas to get impinged. The following are some causes of Impingement Syndrome:
- Pain caused by connective tissue (a tendon) rubbing over a bone
- Inflammation from repetitive activities with improper joint movement
- Increased friction during hip movements that may damage the joint
A torn meniscus is one of the most common knee injuries. Any activity that causes you to forcefully twist or rotate your knee, especially when putting your full weight on it, can lead to the meniscus being torn by impingement of the femur and tibia.
Each of your knees has two C-shaped pieces of cartilage that act like a cushion between your shinbone and your thighbone (menisci). A torn meniscus causes pain, swelling, and stiffness. You also might feel a block to knee motion and have trouble extending your knee fully.
If you've torn your meniscus, you might have the following signs and symptoms in your knee:
- A popping sensation
- Swelling or stiffness
- Pain, especially when twisting or rotating your knee
- Difficulty straightening your knee fully
- Feeling as though your knee is locked in place when you try to move it
- The feeling of your knee giving way
Conservative treatment (such as rest, ice and medication) is sometimes enough to relieve the pain of a torn meniscus and give the injury time to heal on its own.
Beginning symptoms may be mild. Patients frequently do not seek treatment at an early stage. These symptoms may include:
- Minor pain that is present both with activity and at rest
- Pain radiating from the front of the shoulder to the side of the arm
- Sudden pain with lifting and reaching movements
- Athletes in overhead sports may have pain when throwing or serving a tennis ball
As the problem progresses, the symptoms increase:
- Pain at night
- Loss of strength and motion
- Difficulty doing activities that place the arm behind the back, such as buttoning or zippering
Unless it causes you pain, you might never give your shoulder’s labrum a thought. This thick band of tissue surrounds your shoulder socket and keeps your shoulder joint stable. There are different kinds of labrum tears. Your humerus and clavicle (collarbone). They work together in a ball-and-socket where the arm connects to your trunk. Your shoulder’s labrum isn’t a bone. It is soft tissue that helps connect the socket part of the scapula (called the glenoid) with the head of the humerus. If the labrum tears, there’s not enough cushion between those bones.
There are many different kinds of shoulder labrum tears. A labrum SLAP tear covers a specific area. The upper, or superior, part of your labrum attaches to your tendon. In a labrum SLAP tear, SLAP stands for superior labrum anterior and posterior. This means your labrum is torn at the top in both the front (anterior) and back (posterior) of where it attaches to the biceps tendon.
A Bankart lesion is a lesion of the anterior part of the glenoid labrum of the shoulder. This injury is caused by repeated anterior shoulder dislocations. The dislocation of the shoulder joint (anterior) can damage the connective tissue ring around the glenoid labrum. It can also bring damage to the connection between the labrum and capsule. Usually, it has to do with none or poor construction of the medial glenohumeral ligament. This injury is common for athletes that practice volleyball, tennis, handball, and people who do overhead activities.
There are three ways to tear your labrum:
- Wear and tear
The focus of the rehabilitation program is on maximizing dynamic stability, scapula positioning, proprioception and improving neuromuscular control, as there are no specific exercises to improve the labrum quality.
Hip impingement, also known as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), is a condition in which there is abnormal wearing contact between the ball and socket of the hip joint. The result is increased friction during hip movements that may damage the joint.
Patients often complain of:
- Pain in the groin after prolonged sitting or walking
- In Athletes, pain in the groin with deep flexion or rotation of the hip during activity
- Popping or clicking in the front of the hip
- Pain that radiates along the side of the thigh and in the buttocks
Treatment of hip impingement/femoroacetabular impingement begins with conservative, non-surgical methods. Activity modifications and a course of rehabilitation exercise therapy are often successful in alleviating symptoms.
A hip labral tear involves the ring of cartilage (labrum) that follows the outside rim of your hip joint socket. Besides cushioning the hip joint, the labrum acts like a rubber seal or gasket to help hold the ball at the top of your thighbone securely within your hip socket.
Athletes who participate in sports such as ice hockey, soccer, football, golf and ballet are at higher risk of developing hip labral tears. Structural abnormalities of the hip also can lead to a hip labral tear.
Many hip labral tears cause no signs or symptoms. Some people, however, have one or more of the following:
- Pain in the hip or groin, often made worse by long periods of standing, sitting or walking
- A locking, clicking or catching sensation in your hip joint
- Stiffness or limited range of motion in your hip joint
The cause of a hip labral tear might be:
- Trauma. Injury to or dislocation of the hip joint, which can occur during car accidents or from playing contact sports such as football or hockey, can cause a hip labral tear.
- Structural abnormalities. Some people are born with hip problems that can accelerate wear and tear of the joint and eventually cause a hip labral tear.
- Repetitive motions. Sports-related and other physical activities, including long-distance running and the sudden twisting or pivoting motions common in golf or softball, can lead to joint wear and tear that ultimately result in a hip labral tear.
If the sports you play puts a lot of strain on your hips, condition the surrounding muscles with strength and flexibility exercises.